Morphological Skip-Gram: Replacing FastText characters n-gram with morphological knowledge

Authors

  • Flávio Arthur O. Santos Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, Centro de Informatica, Recife, Brazil
  • Thiago Dias Bispo Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, Centro de Informatica, Recife, Brazil
  • Hendrik Teixeira Macedo Universidade Federal de Sergipe, Departamento de Computacao, Brazil
  • Cleber Zanchettin Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, Centro de Informatica, Recife, Brazil

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.4114/intartif.vol24iss67pp1-17

Keywords:

Word Embeddings, Morphological Knowledge, Natural Language Processing, Character n-grams

Abstract

Natural language processing systems have attracted much interest of the industry. This branch of study is composed of some applications such as machine translation, sentiment analysis, named entity recognition, question and answer, and others. Word embeddings (i.e., continuous word representations) are an essential module for those applications generally used as word representation to machine learning models. Some popular methods to train word embeddings are GloVe and Word2Vec. They achieve good word representations, despite limitations: both ignore morphological information of the words and consider only one representation vector for each word. This approach implies the word embeddings does not consider different word contexts properly and are unaware of its inner structure. To mitigate this problem, the other word embeddings method FastText represents each word as a bag of characters n-grams. Hence, a continuous vector describes each n-gram, and the final word representation is the sum of its characters n-grams vectors. Nevertheless, the use of all n-grams character of a word is a poor approach since some n-grams have no semantic relation with their words and increase the amount of potentially useless information. This approach also increase the training phase time. In this work, we propose a new method for training word embeddings, and its goal is to replace the FastText bag of character n-grams for a bag of word morphemes through the morphological analysis of the word. Thus, words with similar context and morphemes are represented by vectors close to each other. To evaluate our new approach, we performed intrinsic evaluations considering 15 different tasks, and the results show a competitive performance compared to FastText. Moreover, the proposed model is $40\%$ faster than FastText in the training phase. We also outperform the baseline approaches in extrinsic evaluations through Hate speech detection and NER tasks using different scenarios.

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Published

2021-02-20 — Updated on 2021-02-20

How to Cite

Arthur O. Santos, F., Dias Bispo, T., Teixeira Macedo, H., & Zanchettin, C. . (2021). Morphological Skip-Gram: Replacing FastText characters n-gram with morphological knowledge. Inteligencia Artificial, 24(67), 1–17. https://doi.org/10.4114/intartif.vol24iss67pp1-17